Despite these unorthodox medical practices, the end of the 18th century was marked by many true medical innovations. British physicians William Smellie and William Hunter made advances in obstetrics that established this field as a separate branch of medicine. The British social reformer John Howard furthered humane treatment for hospital patients and prison inmates throughout Europe. In 1796 British physician Edward Jenner introduced vaccination to prevent smallpox. His efforts both controlled this dreaded disease and also established the science of immunization.
- John Adams and Colonial Era Medicine (bsurgmed.wordpress.com)
- How Species Save Our Lives (opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com)
- Smallpox: the most successful vaccination ever (telegraph.co.uk)