Archive for the ‘war’ Category
The Vietnam War: An Overview
The Second Indochina War, 1954-1975, grew out of the long conflict between France and Vietnam. In July 1954, after one hundred years of colonial rule, France was forced to leave Vietnam. Communist forces under the direction of General Vo Nguyen Giap defeated the allied French troops at Dien Bien Phu, a remote mountain outpost in the northwest corner of Vietnam. This decisive battle convinced the French that they could no longer maintain their Indochinese colonies and Paris quickly sued for peace. As the two sides came together to discuss the terms of the peace in Geneva, Switzerland, international events were already shaping the future of Indochina.
On August 2, 1964, in response to American and South Vietnamese espionage along itscoast, North Vietnam launched a local and controlled attack against an American ship on call in the Gulf of Tonkin. A second attack was supposed to have taken place on August 4, although Vo Nguyen Giap the DRV’s leading military figure at the time and Johnson’s Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara have recently concluded that no second attack ever took place. In any event, the Johnson administration used the August 4 attack to secure a Congressional resolution that gave the president broad war powers. The resolution, now known as the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, passed both the House and Senate with only two dissenting votes (Senators Morse of Oregon and Gruening of Alaska). The Resolution was followed by limited reprisal air attacks against North Vietnam.
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Ivan IV, know as Ivan the Terrible, is most known for his brutal ruling, centralised administration of Russia and expantion of the boundaries of the Russian Empire. He was born in Moscow on August 25, 1530, the oldest son of Vasilij III.
Ivan was only three years old when his Father, Vasilij III died. Ivan’s Mother, Yelena Glinskaya was leading Boyar (Noble) Family established a regency, but it soon degenerated into intrigue, denuncation and wild violence as rival boyars disputed the dominance of Glinsky Family. Yelena died in 1538 and misrule continued. Ivan had a poor health, he was largely ignored and his education was neglected.
Ivan the Terrible assumed the throne in 1547 at the age of seventeen and immediately proclaimed himself “Tsar” (Czar) , instead of Grand Duke. In the same year Ivan married Anastasia Romanov. When Anastasia died in 1560, he remarried. Among his wives are Marie Tscerkaski (1561) and Maria Sobakina (1571).
Ivan justly deserved his reputation as a tyrant and his reign was peppered with battles with foreign invaders. Kazan was finally wrestled from the grasp of the Tartars in 1552 and St. Basil’s Cathedral was built on Red Square to celebrate the occasion. Ivan seized Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea two years later, and having repelled the Tartars completely, he looked west to the Duchy of Livonia, which he invaded despite protests from Poland and Sweden.
In 1560 the Tsar was devastated by the death of his beloved wife Anastasia and turned on his once favored courtiers and nobles, blaming them for her death. Although Ivan abdicated in 1564 in protest, he was urged back to power and began a rule of terror never before seen in Russian history. He divided the country into two clean-cut spheres, the one (the oprichnina) encompassing his personal domain, and the other (the zemshchina) representing the rest. Ivan broke the power of the Muscovite boyars, exiling thousands of them to Siberia, and created a new militia. These hand-picked oprichniki, as he named them, were devoted to his orders and were encouraged to rape, loot, burn, kill and torture in the Tsar’s name. They spread terror throughout Russia, culminating in the atrocious massacre of Novgorod in 1569, when as many as 60,000 citizens were tortured to death for supposedly plotting to side with Poland.
In 1571 the Tartars raided Moscow, burning much of the city and taking thousands of citizens away as slaves. Ivan fled to Yaroslavl, where he spent much of his remaining decade in power plotting to usurp the Polish throne. In 1581 a combined Polish and Swedish invasion prompted the Tsar to concede Livonia to the Poles.
In 1582, in an attack of unexplained rage, Ivan had killed his eldest son, Tsarevich Ivan, by striking him with an iron rod. He died on March 18, 1584. Although the transition from Ivan to his son and successor, Feodor I, was relatively easy and quiet, Moscow was, according to most observers, on the verge of anarchy as a result of Ivan The Terrible’s policies.
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Gypsies in the Holocaust.
via Gypsies in the Holocaust.
“For Nazi Germany the Gypsies became a racist dilemma. The Gypsies were Aryans, but in the Nazi mind there were contradictions between what they regarded as the superiority of the Aryan race and their image of the Gypsies…
At a conference held in Berlin on January 30, 1940, a decision was taken to expel 30,000 Gypsies from Germany to the territories of occupied Poland…
The reports of the SS Einsatzgruppen [special task forces] which operated in the occupied territories of the Soviet Union mention the murder of thousands of Gypsies along with the massive extermination of the Jews in these areas.
The deportations and executions of the Gypsies came under Himmler’s authority. On December 16, 1942, Himmler issued an order to send all Gypsies to the concentration camps, with a few exceptions…
The deported Gypsies were sent to Auschwitz-Birkenau, where a special Gypsy camp was erected. Over 20,000 Gypsies from Germany and some other parts of Europe were sent to this camp, and most of them were gassed there…
Wiernik described the arrival of the largest Gypsy group brought to Treblinka, in the spring of 1943:
One day, while I was working near the gate, I noticed the Germans and Ukrainians making special preparations…meanwhile the gate opened, and about 1,000 Gypsies were brought in (this was the third transport of Gypsies). About 200 of them were men, and the rest women and children…all the Gypsies were taken to the gas chambers and then burned…
Gypsies from the General Government [Poland] who were not sent to Auschwitz and to the operation Reinhard camps were shot on spot by the local police or gendarmes. In the eastern region of the Cracow district, in the counties of Sanok, Jaslo, and Rzeszow, close to 1,000 Gypsies were shot…”
[Excerpted from Arad, Yitzhak. Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka—The Operation Reinhard Death Camps. IN: Indiana University Press, 1987, pp. 150153.]
According to The Institut Fuer Zeitgeschicthe in Munich, at least 4,000 gypsies were murdered by gas at Auschwitz-Birkenau.
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Happy 235th Birthday, U.S. Marine Corps – TIME NewsFeed.
via Happy 235th Birthday, U.S. Marine Corps – TIME NewsFeed.
via Happy 235th Birthday, U.S. Marine Corps – TIME NewsFeed.
Before America established its footing as an independent nation, the unit defined as “The Few, The Proud” had already launched its quest to defend freedom.
Wednesday marks the 235th Birthday of the United States Marine Corps. The Marines’ history division reveals that the Nov. 10 date was formally commemorated in 1921 — 151 years after the Second Continental Congress raised two battalions of Continental Marines in 1775. That makes the Marine Corps nearly eight months older than America itself.
Read more: http://newsfeed.time.com/2010/11/10/happy-235th-birthday-u-s-marine-corps/#ixzz14y7IPCwU
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New online database lists Nazi loot for repatriation – Americas, World – The Independent.
via New online database lists Nazi loot for repatriation – Americas, World – The Independent.In this April 12, 1945 photo released by the U.S. National Archives, U.S. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme Allied Commander, accompanied by Gen. Omar N. Bradley, left, and Lt. George S. Patton, Jr., inspects art treasures stolen by Germans in a salt mine in Merkers, Germany. Holocaust survivors and their relatives, as well as art collectors and museums, cango online beginning Monday, Oct. 18, 2010 to search a historical database of more than 20,000 art objects stolen in German-occupied France and Belgium from 1940 to 1944.
In this May 13, 1945 photo released by the U.S. National Archives, “The Graces in the Gardens of the Hesperides” by Peter Paul Rubens painting taken by the Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg (ERR), is shown. Holocaust survivors and their relatives, as well as art collectors and museums, can go online beginning Monday, Oct. 18, 2010 to search a historical database of more than 20,000 art objects stolen in German-occupied France and Belgium from 1940 to 1944.
In this April 24, 1945 photo released by the U.S. National Archives, an American soldier stands among German loot stored in a church at Elligen, Germany. Holocaust survivors and their relatives, as well as art collectors and museums, can go online beginning Monday, Oct. 18, 2010 to search a historical database of more than 20,000 art objects stolen in German-occupied France and Belgium from 1940 to 1944.
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The Auschwitz Album is the only surviving visual evidence of the process of mass murder at Auschwitz-Birkenau. It is a unique document and was donated to Yad Vashem by Lilly Jacob-Zelmanovic Meier.
Visit the online exhibition: http://bit.ly/2Fi0aO
Korea war communist prisoner exchange non repatriates released, Jan. 20, 1954 the North Korean prisoners Load into the flat cars which ill take them southward to the reception centers after they came across from the DZ to the U.N. Receiving point. (AP Photo/Sweers)
A Korean, with an ‘A’frame carrier strapped to his back, pauses on a Seoul, Korea, street on Nov. 28, 1952 to read sign posted in English and Korean in anticipation of a visit by President-elect Dwight D. Eisenhower. (AP Photo/George Sweers)
The Korean Kids at the elementary school at Tongduch’on ni, set up by GIs camped nearby in Korea on June 21, 1952, are learning baseball as well as their abc’s for a well-rounded education. Sergeant Kenneth D. Henry, of Memphis, Mo., and Sergeant Jess R. Adkins, of Peru, Indiana, are giving instruction in the great American game to two of the older students of the school. (AP Photo)
An army corporal at Panmunjom took this picture in Korea on Oct. 8, 1952 as the last jeep of the United Nations convoy departed for Munsan, after Korean truce talks at Panmunjom had been recessed indefinitely. Somebody had just put the identifying sign on the rear of the jeep. The picture has just become available on November 10, by air from Tokyo, Japan. (AP Photo)
Three American Marines, left to right are: Pfc. Clarence Hara, Alumbank, Pa.; Cpl. Jean Holland, Americus, Ga.; and Pfc. Carl Toker, Mt. Wolf, Pa., destroy their bunkers on a forward observation post on the western front preparatory to withdrawal from the demilitarized zone under terms of the armistice in Korea July 28, 1953. In background is what was once no-man’s land. (AP Photo/CLH)
Apparently calling cadence, the North Korean Communist military policeman, at right, stands to the side of the read leading to the Panmunjom military armistice site on Oct. 28, 1951, as two armed Communist military policeman march in single file. Both, American and Communist military policemen spread about the Korean neutral zone, keep their eyes open for possible violations of the U.N.-Communists sire agreements. (AP Photo)
ROK soldiers look back at their former positions as their truck moves southward out of the demilitarized zone following the truce agreement on July 30, 1953. (AP Photo)
A line of soldiers on a United Nations patrol mission plod through deep snow up a hill in the central front of Korea on Feb. 3, 1951. (AP Photo/Max Desfor )
A U.S. First Cavalry Division tank takes on the appearance of a Times Square subway train at the rush hour as GI’s pile aboard, on March 14, 1951 for a ride across the Hongchon River near the former Red supply base of Hongchon. (AP Photo/Jim Pringle)