Archive for the ‘history’ Category

BBC News – Yale agrees to return Machu Picchu artefacts to Peru   Leave a comment

 

 

Yale University has signed an agreement to return to Peru some 5,000 Inca artefacts removed from the famed Machu Picchu citadel nearly a century ago.

The relics – stone tools, ceramics and human and animal bones – will be housed in a new centre in the city of Cuzco.

The deal ends a long dispute over the artefacts, which were taken from Machu Picchu by American explorer Hiram Bingham in 1912.

Machu Picchu, high in the Andes, is Peru’s main tourist attraction.

via BBC News – Yale agrees to return Machu Picchu artefacts to Peru.

Posted February 16, 2011 by dmacc502 in government, history, science

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Would You Like to See How Big Cities Looked Like Hundred Years Ago?   Leave a comment

 

 

Would You Like to See How Big Cities Looked Like Hundred Years Ago?.

Posted February 4, 2011 by dmacc502 in American, culture, history, photography

Irish Famine   Leave a comment

An 1849 depiction of Bridget O'Donnell and her...

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Irish Ship Disembarking from Ireland for America

During the famine years some two million Irish left Ireland and those were only the ones who were able to scrape together the passage fare. Many remaining would have to wait until after the famine to leave. One quarter of the pre-famine population would leave Ireland in the famine years alone. Another quarter of the population would die in Ireland.
Most of the Irish emigrants went to the Northeast. All of our ancestors went to New York which received almost 200,000 Irish immigrants by 1860. Poor, uneducated, rural,most of the Irish were employed in the labor pool.
In the famine years, most of the immigration was in family units, though some males still preceded their families as was the case with John Cassidy who arrived in New York City in 1846 on the SS Stephen Whitney. His family, wife Margaret and children: John, Mary, Anne and Bridget, followed on the SS Columbus in 1849. Once in New York, The Cassidy’s took up residence at 34 W.Broadway. We find them on the 1855 NY State Census with John age 37 born in Ireland, living in the city for 8 years, a laborer, naturalized and Margaret born Ireland and living five years in the city. Children are listed as John, Mary, Ann, Biddy (Bridget), Hugh and Thomas. We see them again on the 1860 census in New York City where John is a laborer with the information that he cannot read nor write. His wife Margaret is listed as a housekeeper and children living with them are: John, Ann, Bridget, Hugh and Thomas.
The famine was largely responsible for the Irish determination to regain control of their own land,a struggle which we are witnessing today in Ireland.

Posted January 19, 2011 by dmacc502 in history, Uncategorized

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North Korea willing to resume U.S. missions to recover remains of MIAs   Leave a comment

3.5-inch rocket launcher in action against the...

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Washington (CNN) — Rick Downes’ mission has brought him here, to the National Archives in suburban Washington, D.C. His goal: to find any records, information — anything at all — that would tell him what happened to his father.
“My father is missing in action 59 years ago yesterday. He was Air Force and his plane went down and we don’t know what happened to him,” Downes said last Friday before he headed into the Archives.
Lt. Harold Downes was a navigator on a B-26 bomber when his plane went down over North Korea on January 13, 1952. Some of the crew ejected and were captured by the North Koreans. Downes was never seen again. He remains to this day one of the more than 8,000 U.S. servicemembers listed as “unaccounted for” from the Korean War, a conflict often referred to as the “forgotten war.”
For the families of those unaccounted for, there used to be hope. Over the years, the United States and North Korea — long-time adversaries — had cooperated in efforts to look for remains of those missing in action. Beginning in 1996, North Korean and U.S. military teams conducted 33 joint recovery missions looking for remains inside North Korea. There was success, too — 229 sets of remains were located, and brought out of the very reclusive country.

Posted January 19, 2011 by dmacc502 in history, Uncategorized

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IVAN THE TERRIBLE Also: Ivan IV, Ivan Grozny 1530-1584 CZAR OF ALL RUSSIA 1547-1584   Leave a comment

Ivan IV of Russia ("Ivan the Terrible&quo...

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Ivan IV, know as Ivan the Terrible, is most known for his brutal ruling, centralised administration of Russia and expantion of the boundaries of the Russian Empire. He was born in Moscow on August 25, 1530, the oldest son of Vasilij III.

Ivan was only three years old when his Father, Vasilij III died. Ivan’s Mother, Yelena Glinskaya was leading Boyar (Noble) Family established a regency, but it soon degenerated into intrigue, denuncation and wild violence as rival boyars disputed the dominance of Glinsky Family. Yelena died in 1538 and misrule continued. Ivan had a poor health, he was largely ignored and his education was neglected.

Ivan the Terrible assumed the throne in 1547 at the age of seventeen and immediately proclaimed himself “Tsar” (Czar) , instead of Grand Duke. In the same year Ivan married Anastasia Romanov. When Anastasia died in 1560, he remarried. Among his wives are Marie Tscerkaski (1561) and Maria Sobakina (1571).

Ivan justly deserved his reputation as a tyrant and his reign was peppered with battles with foreign invaders. Kazan was finally wrestled from the grasp of the Tartars in 1552 and St. Basil’s Cathedral was built on Red Square to celebrate the occasion. Ivan seized Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea two years later, and having repelled the Tartars completely, he looked west to the Duchy of Livonia, which he invaded despite protests from Poland and Sweden.

Painting by Repin - Ivan the Terrible killing his sonIn 1560 the Tsar was devastated by the death of his beloved wife Anastasia and turned on his once favored courtiers and nobles, blaming them for her death. Although Ivan abdicated in 1564 in protest, he was urged back to power and began a rule of terror never before seen in Russian history. He divided the country into two clean-cut spheres, the one (the oprichnina) encompassing his personal domain, and the other (the zemshchina) representing the rest. Ivan broke the power of the Muscovite boyars, exiling thousands of them to Siberia, and created a new militia. These hand-picked oprichniki, as he named them, were devoted to his orders and were encouraged to rape, loot, burn, kill and torture in the Tsar’s name. They spread terror throughout Russia, culminating in the atrocious massacre of Novgorod in 1569, when as many as 60,000 citizens were tortured to death for supposedly plotting to side with Poland.

In 1571 the Tartars raided Moscow, burning much of the city and taking thousands of citizens away as slaves. Ivan fled to Yaroslavl, where he spent much of his remaining decade in power plotting to usurp the Polish throne. In 1581 a combined Polish and Swedish invasion prompted the Tsar to concede Livonia to the Poles.

In 1582, in an attack of unexplained rage, Ivan had killed his eldest son, Tsarevich Ivan, by striking him with an iron rod. He died on March 18, 1584. Although the transition from Ivan to his son and successor, Feodor I, was relatively easy and quiet, Moscow was, according to most observers, on the verge of anarchy as a result of Ivan The Terrible’s policies.

First Americans ‘reached Europe five centuries before Columbus discoveries’ | Science | The Guardian   Leave a comment

Columbus landing on Hispaniola

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When Christopher Columbus paraded his newly discovered American Indians through the streets of Spanish towns at the end of the 15th century, he was not in fact introducing the first native Americans to Europe, according to new research.

Scientists who have studied the genetic past of an Icelandic family now claim the first Americans reached Europe a full five centuries before Columbus bumped into an island in the Bahamas during his first voyage of discovery in 1492.

via First Americans ‘reached Europe five centuries before Columbus discoveries’ | Science | The Guardian.

via First Americans ‘reached Europe five centuries before Columbus discoveries’ | Science | The Guardian.

The Ancient World | Greece | Culture | guardian.co.uk   1 comment

Parthenon from west

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E pluribus unum: “out of many – one”. The one-time motto of the US reminds us that, much like most of the larger nation states today, ancient Greece was a mosaic of very different components: about 1,000 of them at any one time between c600BC and AD330. That is, there were a thousand or so separate, often radically self-differentiated political entities, most of which went by the title of polis, or citizen-state. Our term “Greece” is derived from the Romans’ Latin name, Graecia, whereas the ancient Greeks spoke of Hellas – meaning sometimes the Aegean Greek heartland, at other times the entire, hypertrophied Hellenic world – and referred to themselves as “Hellenes”.

via The Ancient World | Greece | Culture | guardian.co.uk.

via The Ancient World | Greece | Culture | guardian.co.uk.

Posted November 16, 2010 by dmacc502 in culture, global, government, history, literature, travel

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Gypsies in the Holocaust   4 comments

Muslim Gypsies from Bosnia.

Image via Wikipedia Muslim Gypsies from Bosnia

Gypsies in the Holocaust.

via Gypsies in the Holocaust.

“For Nazi Germany the Gypsies became a racist dilemma. The Gypsies were Aryans, but in the Nazi mind there were contradictions between what they regarded as the superiority of the Aryan race and their image of the Gypsies…

At a conference held in Berlin on January 30, 1940, a decision was taken to expel 30,000 Gypsies from Germany to the territories of occupied Poland…

The reports of the SS Einsatzgruppen [special task forces] which operated in the occupied territories of the Soviet Union mention the murder of thousands of Gypsies along with the massive extermination of the Jews in these areas.

The deportations and executions of the Gypsies came under Himmler’s authority. On December 16, 1942, Himmler issued an order to send all Gypsies to the concentration camps, with a few exceptions…

The deported Gypsies were sent to Auschwitz-Birkenau, where a special Gypsy camp was erected. Over 20,000 Gypsies from Germany and some other parts of Europe were sent to this camp, and most of them were gassed there…

Wiernik described the arrival of the largest Gypsy group brought to Treblinka, in the spring of 1943:

One day, while I was working near the gate, I noticed the Germans and Ukrainians making special preparations…meanwhile the gate opened, and about 1,000 Gypsies were brought in (this was the third transport of Gypsies). About 200 of them were men, and the rest women and children…all the Gypsies were taken to the gas chambers and then burned…

Gypsies from the General Government [Poland] who were not sent to Auschwitz and to the operation Reinhard camps were shot on spot by the local police or gendarmes. In the eastern region of the Cracow district, in the counties of Sanok, Jaslo, and Rzeszow, close to 1,000 Gypsies were shot…”

[Excerpted from Arad, Yitzhak. Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka—The Operation Reinhard Death Camps. IN: Indiana University Press, 1987, pp. 150­153.]

According to The Institut Fuer Zeitgeschicthe in Munich, at least 4,000 gypsies were murdered by gas at Auschwitz-Birkenau.

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Richard Evelyn Byrd   Leave a comment

Admiral Richard E. Byrd

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Join Admiral Richard E. Byrd in 1982 as he leads a term of explorers to the coldest continent on Earth to map the region and claim large tracts on Antartica for the United States.

On May 9, 1926, Byrd and pilot Floyd Bennett attempted a flight over the North Pole in a Fokker F-VII Tri-motor called the Josephine Ford. This flight went from Spitsbergen (Svalbard) and back to its take-off airfield. Byrd claimed to have reached the Pole. This trip earned Byrd widespread acclaim, including being received the Medal of Honor and enabled him to secure funding for subsequent attempts to fly over the South Pole.

From 1926 until 1996, there were doubts, defenses, and heated controversy about whether or not Byrd actually reached the North Pole. In 1958 Norwegian-American aviator and explorer Bernt Balchen cast doubt on Byrd’s claim on the basis of his extensive personal knowledge of the airplane’s speed. In 1971 Balchen speculated that Byrd had simply circled aimlessly while out of sight of land.[1]

The 1996 release of Byrd’s diary of the May 9, 1926 flight revealed erased (but still legible) sextant sights that sharply differ with Byrd’s later June 22 typewritten official report to the National Geographic Society. Byrd took a sextant reading of the Sun at 7:07:10 GCT. His erased diary record shows the apparent (observed) solar altitude to have been 19°25’30”, while his later official typescript reports the same 7:07:10 apparent solar altitude to have been 18°18’18”.[2] On the basis of this and other data in the diary, Dennis Rawlins concluded that Byrd steered accurately, and flew about 80% of the distance to the Pole before turning back because of an engine oil leak, but later falsified his official report to support his claim of reaching the pole.[3]

 

The Fokker FVIIa/3M – “Josephine Ford”, on display at The Henry Ford Museum

Accepting that the conflicting data in the typed report’s flight times indeed require both northward and southward groundspeeds greater than the flight’s 85 mph airspeed, a remaining Byrd defender posits a westerly-moving anti-cyclone that tailwind-boosted Byrd’s groundspeed on both outward and inward legs, allowing the distance claimed to be covered in the time claimed. (The theory is based on rejecting handwritten sextant data in favor of typewritten alleged dead-reckoning data.)[4] This suggestion has been refuted by Dennis Rawlins[5] who adds[6] that the sextant data in the long unavailable original official typewritten report are all expressed to 1″, a precision not possible on Navy sextants of 1926 and not the precision of the sextant data in Byrd’s diary for 1925 or the 1926 flight, which was normal (half or quarter of a minute of arc). Some sources claim that Floyd Bennett and Byrd later revealed, in private conversations, that they did not reach the pole. One source claims that Floyd Bennett later told a fellow pilot that they did not reach the pole.[7] It is also claimed that Byrd confessed his failure to reach the North Pole during a long walk with Dr. Isaiah Bowman in 1930.[8]

Considering that Byrd and Bennett probably didn’t reach the North Pole, it is extremely likely that the first flight over the Pole was the flight of the airship Norge in May 1926 with its crew of Roald AmundsenUmberto NobileOscar Wisting, and others. This flight went from Spitsbergen (Svalbard) to Alaska nonstop, so there is little doubt that they went over the North Pole. Amundsen and Wisting had both been members of the first expedition to the South Pole, December 1911.

Happy 235th Birthday, U.S. Marine Corps – TIME NewsFeed   Leave a comment

Five Marines with fixed bayonets, and their NC...

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Happy 235th Birthday, U.S. Marine Corps – TIME NewsFeed.

via Happy 235th Birthday, U.S. Marine Corps – TIME NewsFeed.

via Happy 235th Birthday, U.S. Marine Corps – TIME NewsFeed.

Before America established its footing as an independent nation, the unit defined as “The Few, The Proud” had already launched its quest to defend freedom.

Wednesday marks the 235th Birthday of the United States Marine Corps. The Marines’ history division reveals that the Nov. 10 date was formally commemorated in 1921 — 151 years after the Second Continental Congress raised two battalions of Continental Marines in 1775. That makes the Marine Corps nearly eight months older than America itself.

Read more: http://newsfeed.time.com/2010/11/10/happy-235th-birthday-u-s-marine-corps/#ixzz14y7IPCwU