Would You Like to See How Big Cities Looked Like Hundred Years Ago?.
When Christopher Columbus paraded his newly discovered American Indians through the streets of Spanish towns at the end of the 15th century, he was not in fact introducing the first native Americans to Europe, according to new research.
Scientists who have studied the genetic past of an Icelandic family now claim the first Americans reached Europe a full five centuries before Columbus bumped into an island in the Bahamas during his first voyage of discovery in 1492.
On May 9, 1926, Byrd and pilot Floyd Bennett attempted a flight over the North Pole in a Fokker F-VII Tri-motor called the Josephine Ford. This flight went from Spitsbergen (Svalbard) and back to its take-off airfield. Byrd claimed to have reached the Pole. This trip earned Byrd widespread acclaim, including being received the Medal of Honor and enabled him to secure funding for subsequent attempts to fly over the South Pole.
From 1926 until 1996, there were doubts, defenses, and heated controversy about whether or not Byrd actually reached the North Pole. In 1958 Norwegian-American aviator and explorer Bernt Balchen cast doubt on Byrd’s claim on the basis of his extensive personal knowledge of the airplane’s speed. In 1971 Balchen speculated that Byrd had simply circled aimlessly while out of sight of land.
The 1996 release of Byrd’s diary of the May 9, 1926 flight revealed erased (but still legible) sextant sights that sharply differ with Byrd’s later June 22 typewritten official report to the National Geographic Society. Byrd took a sextant reading of the Sun at 7:07:10 GCT. His erased diary record shows the apparent (observed) solar altitude to have been 19°25’30”, while his later official typescript reports the same 7:07:10 apparent solar altitude to have been 18°18’18”. On the basis of this and other data in the diary, Dennis Rawlins concluded that Byrd steered accurately, and flew about 80% of the distance to the Pole before turning back because of an engine oil leak, but later falsified his official report to support his claim of reaching the pole.
Accepting that the conflicting data in the typed report’s flight times indeed require both northward and southward groundspeeds greater than the flight’s 85 mph airspeed, a remaining Byrd defender posits a westerly-moving anti-cyclone that tailwind-boosted Byrd’s groundspeed on both outward and inward legs, allowing the distance claimed to be covered in the time claimed. (The theory is based on rejecting handwritten sextant data in favor of typewritten alleged dead-reckoning data.) This suggestion has been refuted by Dennis Rawlins who adds that the sextant data in the long unavailable original official typewritten report are all expressed to 1″, a precision not possible on Navy sextants of 1926 and not the precision of the sextant data in Byrd’s diary for 1925 or the 1926 flight, which was normal (half or quarter of a minute of arc). Some sources claim that Floyd Bennett and Byrd later revealed, in private conversations, that they did not reach the pole. One source claims that Floyd Bennett later told a fellow pilot that they did not reach the pole. It is also claimed that Byrd confessed his failure to reach the North Pole during a long walk with Dr. Isaiah Bowman in 1930.
Considering that Byrd and Bennett probably didn’t reach the North Pole, it is extremely likely that the first flight over the Pole was the flight of the airship Norge in May 1926 with its crew of Roald Amundsen, Umberto Nobile, Oscar Wisting, and others. This flight went from Spitsbergen (Svalbard) to Alaska nonstop, so there is little doubt that they went over the North Pole. Amundsen and Wisting had both been members of the first expedition to the South Pole, December 1911.
Happy 235th Birthday, U.S. Marine Corps – TIME NewsFeed.
Before America established its footing as an independent nation, the unit defined as “The Few, The Proud” had already launched its quest to defend freedom.
Wednesday marks the 235th Birthday of the United States Marine Corps. The Marines’ history division reveals that the Nov. 10 date was formally commemorated in 1921 — 151 years after the Second Continental Congress raised two battalions of Continental Marines in 1775. That makes the Marine Corps nearly eight months older than America itself.
via New online database lists Nazi loot for repatriation – Americas, World – The Independent.In this April 12, 1945 photo released by the U.S. National Archives, U.S. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme Allied Commander, accompanied by Gen. Omar N. Bradley, left, and Lt. George S. Patton, Jr., inspects art treasures stolen by Germans in a salt mine in Merkers, Germany. Holocaust survivors and their relatives, as well as art collectors and museums, cango online beginning Monday, Oct. 18, 2010 to search a historical database of more than 20,000 art objects stolen in German-occupied France and Belgium from 1940 to 1944.
In this May 13, 1945 photo released by the U.S. National Archives, “The Graces in the Gardens of the Hesperides” by Peter Paul Rubens painting taken by the Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg (ERR), is shown. Holocaust survivors and their relatives, as well as art collectors and museums, can go online beginning Monday, Oct. 18, 2010 to search a historical database of more than 20,000 art objects stolen in German-occupied France and Belgium from 1940 to 1944.
In this April 24, 1945 photo released by the U.S. National Archives, an American soldier stands among German loot stored in a church at Elligen, Germany. Holocaust survivors and their relatives, as well as art collectors and museums, can go online beginning Monday, Oct. 18, 2010 to search a historical database of more than 20,000 art objects stolen in German-occupied France and Belgium from 1940 to 1944.
After keeping us waiting for a century, Mark Twain will finally reveal all – News, Books – The Independent.
Exactly a century after rumours of his death turned out to be entirely accurate, one of Mark Twain’s dying wishes is at last coming true: an extensive, outspoken and revelatory autobiography which he devoted the last decade of his life to writing is finally going to be published.
The creator of Tom Sawyer, Huckleberry Finn and some of the most frequently misquoted catchphrases in the English language left behind 5,000 unedited pages of memoirs when he died in 1910, together with handwritten notes saying that he did not want them to hit bookshops for at least a century.
That milestone has now been reached, and in November the University of California, Berkeley, where the manuscript is in a vault, will release the first volume of Mark Twain’s autobiography. The eventual trilogy will run to half a million words, and shed new light on the quintessentially American novelist.
|Mark Twain, detail of photo by Mathew Brady, February 7, 1871|
|Born||Samuel Langhorne Clemens
November 30, 1835
Florida, Missouri, U.S.
|Died||April 21, 1910 (aged 74)
Redding, Connecticut, U.S.
|Pen name||Mark Twain|
|Genres||Fiction, historical fiction, children’s literature, non-fiction, travel literature, satire, essay,philosophical literature, social commentary, literary criticism|
|Notable work(s)||Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,The Adventures of Tom Sawyer|
|Spouse(s)||Olivia Langdon Clemens (1870–1904)|
|Children||Langdon, Susy, Clara, Jean|