Archive for December 2010

Armenian Genocide   Leave a comment

This is a photograph of my grandfather's relat...
Image via Wikipedia

In April 1915 the Ottoman government embarked upon the systematic decimation of its civilian Armenian population. The persecutions continued with varying intensity until 1923 when the Ottoman Empire ceased to exist and was replaced by the Republic of Turkey. The Armenian population of the Ottoman state was reported at about two million in 1915. An estimated one million had perished by 1918, while hundreds of thousands had become homeless and stateless refugees. By 1923 virtually the entire Armenian population of Anatolian Turkey had disappeared.

The Ottoman Empire was ruled by the Turks who had conquered lands extending across West Asia, North Africa and Southeast Europe. The Ottoman government was centered in Istanbul (Constantinople) and was headed by a sultan who was vested with absolute power. The Turks practiced Islam and were a martial people. The Armenians, a Christian minority, lived as second class citizens subject to legal restrictions which denied them normal safeguards. Neither their lives nor their properties were guaranteed security. As non-Muslims they were also obligated to pay discriminatory taxes and denied participation in government. Scattered across the empire, the status of the Armenians was further complicated by the fact that the territory of historic Armenia was divided between the Ottomans and the Russians.

via Armenian Genocide.

2/21/1914 Time line

A Turkish boycott of Armenian businesses is declared by the Ittihadists. Dr. Nazim travels throughout the provinces to implement the boycott.


The police spy David notifies Reshad Bey, Chief of the Political Section of the Constantinople Police Department that he is providing the names, biographies, pictures, and speeches about reform, as well as other data, of two thousand leading Armenians.


Parliamentary elections held in Turkey with only candidates approved by the CUP winning seats.


The Ittihadist Mustafa Abdulhalik Renda, the vice-governor of Seghert, is appointed governor-general of Bitlis Province.


Negotiations are started between the Turkish and German Imperial governments.


Germany declares war on Russia. Beginning of World War I.


A secret treaty of alliance is signed between Turkey and Germany virtually placing the Turkish armed forces under German command.


The Turkish government sends sealed envelopes containing a general mobilization order to district and village councils, with the strict instructions that they were not to be opened until further notice. A fortnight later, with the approval of the Ittihad Committee, instructions are issued to open the envelopes.


Censorship of all telegraphic communication is announced by the government.


Looting is reported in Sivas, Diyarbekir, and other provinces, under the guise of collecting war contributions. Stores owned by Armenian and Greek merchants are vandalized.


1,080 shops owned by Armenians are burned in the city of Diyarbekir.


The male population between the ages of 20 and 45 is conscripted by the Turkish armed forces.


Turkish troops are garrisoned in Armenian schools and churches in Sivas Province. In the city of Sivas, 56,000 soldiers of the 10th Army Corps are quartered in and around the Christian districts.


The Turkish government abrogates the Capitulations (the commercial and judicial rights of the Europeans in the Ottoman Empire).


The Armenian National Assembly, composed of civil and religious representatives, meets in Constantinople and advises Armenians in the provinces to remain calm in the face of provocation.


The Dardanelles Straits are closed to foreign shipping.


News reaches Constantinople about the demand made by the government of the Armenian population in Zeitun to turn in its weapons, including all types of knives.


The government distributes arms to the Muslim residents of the town of Keghi in Erzerum Province on the excuse that the Armenians there were unreliable.


All foreign postal services in Turkey are closed on government order.


Nazaret Chavush, the most notable Armenian leader in Zeitun, is murdered on the order of Haidar Pasha, governor of Marash.


News reaches Constantinople of looting under the guise of war contributions in Shabin-Karahisar.


News that ‘the war contribution’ looting of Armenians was continuing in Diyarbekir Province.


In Zeitun, all the Armenian notables are called to a meeting. About three score attend and are immediately arrested.


News of requisitions imposed on Armenian businesses as ‘war contributions’ reaches Constantinople from every province.


News reaches Constantinople of starvation and the spread of disease in Sivas Province because of the desperate conditions created by the ‘war contributions’ campaign conducted against the Armenians.


Bands of chetes begin looting, violating women and children, and large-scale murdering in Erzerum Province


Leaders of the Armenian nationalist Dashnak party organization in Erzerum are arrested.


Enver authorizes the combined German-Turkish navy to carry out a stealth attack on Russia without declaration of war.


Hostilities are opened between Turkey and Russia with the shelling of the Russian Black Sea coast by Ottoman naval vessels under German command.


Russia formally declares war against the Ottoman Empire.


News from the interior of Turkey reaches the Armenian community of Constantinople that persecutions already exceed earlier actions against the Armenians.


A Proclamation of Jihad, directed against England, France, and Russia, is issued in Constantinople legitimating the formation of the chete organizations.


Unfounded accusations are launched against the Armenians that they had revolted and were preparing to join the Russian forces.


The village of Otsni in Erzerum Province is attacked at night by chete forces. The local Armenian priest and many other Armenians are killed. Every house is looted. The first attacks by chete forces on the Armenian villages of Erzerum are reported.


The Jihad Proclamation is read in all the provinces of the Ottoman Empire.


Mass executions of Armenian soldiers in the Turkish army takes place in various public squares for the purpose of terrorizing the Armenians, while with voluntary contributions, Armenians were building several hospitals for the use of the Turkish army through the Red Crescent Society.


Orders are issued from Constantinople instructing the provincial administrators to oust all Armenian functionaries in the service of the Ottoman government.


In Mush, Ittihadist agents distribute arms to the Turkish population after arousing them with false stories of Armenian outrages.


Previously undisturbed Armenian schools and churches in Sivas Province, together with many private residences, are requisitioned by the Turkish army for use as barracks. The carts, horses, and other travel equipment of the Armenian villagers in the provinces are confiscated.


Robbery and looting on a large scale is reported in Van Province.


The War Ministry distributes explosives, rifles, and other equipment to the irregular forces of the Special Organization (Teshkilati Mahsusa).


Enver’s uncle, Halil Pasha, the military governor of Constantinople, begins organizing Special Organization units in Constantinople by enrolling criminals released from prison.


Halil Pasha instructs the governor of Izmid (Izmit) to identify leaders for Special Organization units and to release criminals from prisons to join these bands.


The vice-governor of Izmid (Izmit) arms the Special Organization with weapons supplied by the War Ministry.


Chete forces consisting of intentionally released convicts are armed by the government in Van Province. In the region of Van requisitions take the form of open robbery and looting.


Having completed his job organizing the Special Organization in Artvin, Behaeddin Shakir is instructed to move on to Trebizond.


The central command of the Special Organization sends instruction for supplying the chete bands with money, vehicles, and others equipment.


The beginning of a series of isolated murders to terrorize the Armenian population.


Reports reach Constantinople that raids by irregular chete forces on the Armenian villages of Erzerum Province are continuing.


Turks loot the properties of subjects of Allied nations.


The Ittihad Inspector of Balikesir sends a message to Dr. Nazim of the central committee of the Special Organization via Midhat Shukri, the Central Secretary of Ittihad, that the Interior Ministry and the Ittihad Committee, in accordance with issued orders, are busy organizing the irregular chete bands.


Reports continue reaching Constantinople that chete raids on the Armenian villages of Erzerum Province are continuing.


Armenians are put to use as porters of army supplies in Erzerum, Trebizond, and Sivas Provinces under the worst of cold winter conditions for the purpose of letting them die of overwork and illness.


The Turkish Cabinet charges Enver with command of the offensive on the Caucasian front and assigns Talaat the position of Acting Minister of War while retaining his position as Minister of the Interior.


An attack by the Ottoman Third Army corps opens the Battle of Sarikamish on the Caucasian Front.


Foreign missionaries abandon the interior of Turkey as crosses on missions are broken by the Turks and replaced by crescents.


Sahag Odabashian, the newly appointed Prelate of Erzinjan, while traveling from Constantinople via Sivas to Erzinjan, where he was to be installed in office, is slain in the village of Kanli-Tash, near Shabin-Karahisar, by six chetes organized by Ahmed Muammer, the governor-general of Sivas Province.

The Ancient Armenians

For three thousand years, a thriving Armenian community had existed inside the vast region of the Middle East bordered by the Black, Mediterranean and Caspian Seas. The area, known today as Anatolia, stands at the crossroads of three continents; Europe, Asia and Africa. Great powers rose and fell over the many centuries and the Armenian homeland, when not independent, was at various times ruled by Persians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs and Mongols.

Despite the repeated invasions and occupations, Armenian pride and cultural identity never wavered. The snow-capped peak of Mount Ararat became the focal point of this proud people and by 600 BC Armenia as a kingdom sprang into being.

The First Christian Nation

Following the advent of Christianity, Armenia became the very first nation to accept it as the state religion. A golden era of peace and prosperity followed which saw the invention of a distinct alphabet, the flourishing of literature, art, commerce, and a unique style of architecture. By the 10th century, Armenians had established a new capital at Ani, affectionately called the ‘city of a thousand and one churches.’

Under Muslim Rule

In the eleventh century, the first Turkish invasion of the Armenian homeland occurred. Thus began several hundred years of rule by Muslim Turks. By the sixteenth century, Armenia had been absorbed into the vast and mighty Ottoman Empire. At its peak, this Turkish empire included much of Southeast Europe, North Africa, and almost all of the Middle East.

But by the 1800s the once powerful Ottoman Empire was in serious decline. For centuries, it had spurned technological and economic progress, while the nations of Europe had embraced innovation and became industrial giants. Turkish armies had once been virtually invincible. Now, they lost battle after battle to modern European armies.

As the empire gradually disintegrated, formerly subject peoples including the Greeks, Serbs and Romanians achieved their long-awaited independence. Only the Armenians and the Arabs of the Middle East remained stuck in the backward and nearly bankrupt empire, now under the autocratic rule of Sultan Abdul Hamid

Armenian Refugees

An Armenian woman kneeling beside dead child in field “within sight of help and safety at Aleppo.”

Food relief

Woman with baby

Transport of Armenians

Transport to Greece

Transport to Greece


In Van

Tents in Aleppo

Armenian refugees marching across the Syrian desert.

Aleppo, Syria.


Near East relief a common sight among the Armenian refugees in Syria


Port Said, Egypt.



Armenian refugee children near Athens, 1923, after the Population exchange between Greece and Turkey

Near East Relief 5,000 children from Karput en route on donkey back and foot

This iconic photo, taken by the German medic Armin Wegner, shows Armenian refugees marching across the Syrian desert

    Armenian genocide resolution dies in US House | Earth Times News   Leave a comment

    Washington – A US House of Representatives resolution declaring that the World War I-era slayings of more than 1 million Armenians by the Ottomans was genocide appears to have died after it failed to reach a vote on Thursday.
    House Speaker Nancy Pelosi did not schedule the resolution for a vote on the last day of House activities before recessing for the holiday break, effectively killing the measure until at least next year.
    The White House and State Department have lobbied hard against it, fearing it would badly damage relations with Turkey. Turkey withdrew its ambassador to Washington after a House committee approved the resolution in March.
    “We have made clear our opposition to that resolution,” State Department spokesman PJ Crowley said earlier this week.
    House Democrats have been pushing for the resolution for years but have never been able to bring it up for a final vote. The proponents have vowed to try again next year, but it will be more difficult with Republicans poised to take control of the House in January following the outcome of November’s elections.
    Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan has warned Washington that passage of the resolution would badly damage relations between the two NATO allies. The Obama administration also worries the resolution could derail the ongoing reconciliation process between Turkey and Armenia.
    Armenians contend that up to 1.5 million of their people were systematically killed by the Ottoman Turks in 1915. Turkey has long denied the genocide claim, saying the number of Armenians killed is much lower than claimed and the deaths were the result of civil unrest.

    Posted December 22, 2010 by dmacc502 in Uncategorized

    Billy the Kid: New Mexico governor weighs pardon for Billy the Kid –   Leave a comment

    Billy the Kid (1860 – 1881). Image mirro...

    Image via Wikipedia


    Reporting from Albuquerque — Nearly 130 years after the death of Henry McCarty, alias William Bonney, but better known as Billy the Kid, New Mexico Gov. Bill Richardson will take some of the final hours of his administration to decide whether to pardon the baby-faced gunslinger.

    Richardson will review evidence that in 1881, one of his predecessors promised to pardon Bonney for killing a sheriff in return for his testimony in a murder case. The record suggests that New Mexico territorial Gov. Lew Wallace later reneged on that promise.

    via Billy the Kid: New Mexico governor weighs pardon for Billy the Kid –

    Posted December 22, 2010 by dmacc502 in History, social

    Tagged with , , ,

    Shipwrecked 2,000-Year-Old Pills Give Clues to Ancient Medicine   Leave a comment

    Map of the regione Toscana.
    Image via Wikipedia




    Scientists are trying to unravel the mystery of whether pills found in a 2,000-year-old shipwreck were, in fact, created and used as effective plant-based medicines.


    And the bigger question: Could the ingredients of these ancient tablets still work to help with modern illnesses?

    Around 130 B.C., a ship, identified as the Relitto del Pozzino, sank off Tuscany, Italy. Among the artifacts found on board in 1989 were glass cups, a pitcher and ceramics, all of which suggested that the ship was sailing from the eastern Mediterranean area.

    via Shipwrecked 2,000-Year-Old Pills Give Clues to Ancient Medicine.

    Enhanced by Zemanta

    Posted December 22, 2010 by dmacc502 in global

    Tagged with , ,

    Cop who ticketed Brooklyn rabbi on Sabbath for jaywalking transferred   Leave a comment




    Jewish law prevents observant Jews from writing or forming any meaningful characters on the Sabbath.


    via Cop who ticketed Brooklyn rabbi on Sabbath for jaywalking transferred.

    Enhanced by Zemanta

    Posted December 22, 2010 by dmacc502 in global, religion

    Tagged with , ,

    Natural Medication: Foods from the Countryside – Moorland and Meadow   Leave a comment




    Wherever you hunt for free foods, remember not to strip one plant of all its leaves or berries, but take small amounts from several so as not affect their appearance or health.


    via Natural Medication: Foods from the Countryside – Moorland and Meadow.

    Enhanced by Zemanta

    Posted December 22, 2010 by dmacc502 in environment

    Tagged with ,

    Stalin's 131st Birthday | Video | Multimedia | The Moscow Times   Leave a comment

    Joseph Stalin
    Image via Wikipedia

    Stalin’s 131st Birthday | Video | Multimedia | The Moscow Times.

    A group of Russians laid over 4,000 roses on Josef Stalin’s grave Tuesday to commemorate the Soviet dictator’s 131st birthday. Stalin is still one of the most popular historical figures in Russia nearly 19 years after the fall of the Soviet Union.

    Posted December 21, 2010 by dmacc502 in global, History

    Tagged with , , ,